Asphalt rutting due to use of spiked tyres is now extensively discussed by Russian road experts. Spiked tyres are one of the main reasons of road rutting; however until recently there have not been any regular data on how often spiked tyres are used in various regions of Russia.
In 2010 – 2013 specialists of Scientific Innovation Centre of Stroyproekt carried out a dedicated survey of motor roads in different Russian regions. The survey covered St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Samara, Voronezh, Ryazan, Chelyabinsk, Tyumen, Petrozavodsk, Sochi and Vladivostok as well as the M-20 Road in Pskov Region, the M-4 Road in Moscow Region and Chelyabinsk – Yekaterinburg Road.
The study included the following methods of spiked tyre use registration:
– Snapshotting and video shooting of passing vehicles during winter periods;
– Visual examination of vehicles parked in road influence zones during winter periods (parking at business centres and hypermarkets, railway stations and airports, residential areas, petrol stations, etc.). Only the vehicles that seemed to be operated were examined.
– Interviewing of drivers at petrol stations (during summers periods).
During one-shot examinations, their date and time, location, vehicle type and presence/absence of spiked tyres have been recorded in survey protocols. One-shot examinations included 100 – 300 vehicles. In total, over 12000 vehicles have been examined.
The main conclusions of the study:
• Nowadays spiked tyres are practically not used for heavy trucks. Spiked tyres are mostly used for motor cars and are quite common for light trucks (with maximum 2 tons capacity) and minibuses. The weight of spikes of cars and light trucks is different which results in different wear rates of the road pavement.
• During winter, the percentage of vehicles equipped with spiked tyres varies. When the winter starts, their percentage increases reaching its maximum in the middle of winter and then decreases in spring. However, about 1 - 2% of cars remain having spiked tyres also in summer.
• Drivers normally start using spiked tyres when the average daily temperature becomes about +10 о С in autumn and stop using them when the average daily temperature in spring is also +10 о С approximately.
The percentage of vehicles equipped with spiked tyres decreases towards the south of Russia owing to different climate conditions.
The collected data on the number of spiked tyre vehicles in various regions of Russia is not comprehensive. Yet this data is sufficient to develop an approximate mathematical model allowing forecasting the number of spiked tyre vehicles in Russian regions not covered by the survey.
The results of the study can be used when developing Russian standards for application of spiked tyres. At present their use is not regulated anyhow by Russian norms except for their weight limit specified in GOST R 52747-2007.