|Novosibirsk||Ob River Crossing – Bugrinsky Bridge in Novosibirsk|
|Sochi.||Back-up of Kurortny Prospect, 3 stage|
St. Petersburg (new construction)
Design, detailed design development and construction control
Project period: 2004 – 2016
General Designer: AO Institute Stroyproekt
Client: Concessioner of the WHSD Central Part is North Capital Highway LLC, OAO WHSD
This modern multi-lane highway connects the southwest of the city, including the Sea Port area, with the Ring Road, Vasilievsky Island, Kurortny district and the Scandinavia motorway. This is one of the first projects in Russia carried out on concession basis. The WHSD is a toll road.
The WHSD motorway runs from the South to the North from the intersection of St. Petersburg Ring Road with Dachny prospect along the railway tracks of Baltic semicircle via Kirovsky Plant to the Timber Port, then across the Gulf of Finland and along the western part of Vasiljevsky Island and Petrogradsky District, in the territory of Primorsky and Vyborgsky District (crossing the Ring Road near Hyundai plant) and ends up at the junction to E-18 Scandinavia motorway near Beloostrov (Kurortny District).
The road includes a great number of engineering structures to cross the densely developed urban territory and water areas, including the vast spaces of the Neva Bay.
The Western High Speed Diameter owns two records for the largest length of bridge structures in Russia:
1. The longest bridge structure in Russia is the southern flyover of the main way with the bridges across the Sea Channel and Korabelny Fairway - 9378 meters.
2. The second place in terms of the length is the northern flyover of the main way with the bridges across the Petrovsky Canal and Elagin Fairway - 8794.475 meters.
– Total length: 47 km;
– Number of lanes at different sections: from 4 до 8 (in both directions);
– Maximum traffic intensity: 140,000 vehicles per day;
– Total length of bridges, overpasses, tunnels: 21 km;
– Number of traffic interchanges: 14 (including 6 interchanges to be constructed later).
The WHSD project includes construction of unique bridge structures in Russia, which are an integral part of the St. Petersburg Sea Façade:
• Double Deck Bridge across the main navigation channel of the city – the Sea Channel
– bridge length: 734 m
– length of the central span: 168 m
– bridge underclearance: 52 m
• Cable-stayed bridge across the Korabelny Fairway
– bridge length: 620 m
– length of central span: 320 m
– bridge undercelarance: 35 m
• Cable-stayed bridge across the Petrovsky Fairway
– bridge length: 580 m
– length of central span: 240 m
– bridge underclearance: 25 m.
As regards aesthetic aspects, the entire road has a common design which is dynamic and recognisable: arch-like lighting supports are combined with curved noise screens.
Therefore the WHSD is perceived not only as a highway but as an integral engineering and architectural complex.
The WHSD is one of the first toll roads in Russia and the first one in St. Petersburg.
The WHSD construction:
Construction works were carried out since autumn 2005.
The WHSD Stage I was commissioned on 30 October 2008.
In May 2011 toll operation started at the opened section of the WHSD (Stage I and part of Stage II up to Blagodatnaya Street). The toll can be paid at specially fitted checking points in cash, by bank or smart cards or using electronic payments.
On 18 September 2010 a small section of Stage III between the Hyundai automobile factory and the Ring Road was opened for operation.
On 14 October 2010, section of Stage II up to Blagodatnaya Street was opened for traffic.
On 29 December 2011, the traffic interchange at the intersection of the Ring Road with the WHSD at Hyundai automobile factory was partially opened for traffic.
On 10 October 2012 a section of stage II from Blagodatnaya Street to the Ekaterngofka River was commissioned. Thus the whole Southern Section of the route was put into operation.
In 2013 construction of the Central Section was started.
On 02 August 2013 the WHSD Northern Section from Primorsky road junction to Beloostrov was opened for traffic.
On 02 December 2016 the WHSD Central Section was opened for traffic.
Stage I: from the traffic interchange with the Ring Road to the traffic interchange at Leninsky Prospect and Krasnoputilovskaya Street. Length: 5.7 km (including connections of Port Areas III and IV).
Length of engineering structures: 3.9 km.
Engineering structures of Stage I:
• 3 flyovers with the length of 1865 m, 511 m (in opposite direction 548 m) and 267 m respectively;
• Overpass across Leninsky prospect (272 m long, span layout: 42+44+56+44+2x42 m; in opposite direction, the over pass is 229 m long and its span layout is 42+44+56+42 m);
• Overpass across Krasnoputilovskaya street (229 m long, span layout: 63+78+48+38 m);
• Traffic interchange with the Ring Road, Dachny prospect and Predportovaya street ( 7 exit ramps with a total length of 2.38 km);
• Traffic interchange with Leninsky prospect and Krasnoputilovskaya street (4 exit ramps with a total length of 827 m).
Connection of St. Petersburg Sea Port Areas III and IV to the WHSD:
• 3 overpasses with a total length of 122 m across the railway tracks;
• 3 flyovers with the length of 74 m, 179 m (in opposite direction 59 m) and 103 m;
• flyover for the toll plaza with the length of 206 m;
• overpass across Narodnoye Opolchenie Prospect (130 m long; span layout: 40+51+38 m).
Stage II: from the traffic interchange with Krasnoputilovskaya Street to the traffic interchange at the Ekateringofka River.
Length: 5.2 km.
Length of engineering structures: 4.3 km.
Engineering structures of Stage II:
• 4 flyovers: 335 m, 942 m, 335 m and 1462 m long;
• Bridge across the Ekateringofka river (155 m long, span layout 76.6+75.86 m, width: 2x21.4 m, double-deck with orthotropic plate);
• Traffic interchange with Blagodatnaya street (4 exit ramps);
• Traffic interchange at the Ekateringofka river ( 2 exit ramps, 557 m and 231 m long).
Since the road is located in the narrow corridor within the dense industrial area, the flyovers at sections 3 and 4 of Stage II have been designed as double decks that provide for a one-way traffic at either deck (4 lanes in each direction). In plan, the trusses are located on a variable radius curve with super-elevations and transition sections, which is quite uncommon for double decks. The maximum span length is 144 m.
Stage III: from the traffic interchange with Bogatyrsky prospect to the traffic interchange at the junction to E-18 “Scandinavia” motorway.
Length: 22.7 km.
Length of engineering structures: 2.3 km.
Engineering structures of Stage III:
• Overpass across Shuvalovsky prospect with a flyover (1224 m long, span layout: 51x26 m);
• Bridge across the canal at PK 257 (370 m long, span layout: 39.5+6x48+42 m);
• Bridge across the Kamenka River (312 m long, span layout: 12x26 m);
• Bridge across the Chernaya River at PK 300+91 (30 m long);
• Bridge across the Chernaya River at PK307+12 (162 m long, span layout: 33+39+45+44 m);
• Flyover across the Ring Road (234 m long, span layout: 24x2+22+24x2+33x2+24x2m);
• Bridge across the Chernaya River at PK 374+30 (30 m long);
• Overpass at PK 383+40 (30 m long);
• Overpass at PK 416 (686 m long, span layout:45+63+54+45+2x46+9x42 m);
• Bridge across the Sestra River (235 m long, span layout: 48+2x69+48.5 m);
• Traffic interchange with the Ring Road (8 exit ramps);
• Traffic interchange at the junction to E-18 “Scandinavia” motorway (4 exit ramps).
Stage IV: from the traffic interchange at the Ekateringofka River to Shkipersky Protok Street.
Length: 5.7 km
Length of engineering structures: 5.2 km
Engineering structures of Stage IV:
• Approach flyover to the bridge across the Sea Channel (1020 m long, layout: (144+120)+(156+168+144)+(144+144) m, wide 20.3 m);
• The Sea Channel Bridge (760 m long double-deck bridge, 43 m wide, span layout : 156+168+3x144 m);
• Bridge in the Neva Bay along the contour of Bely Island (973 m long double-deck bridge, 42.5 m wide, span layout: 14x64 m);
• The Southern approach to the bridge across Korabelny Fairway (670 m long double-deck bridge, 41 m wide, span layout: 3x84+105+126+103+84 m);
• Cable-stayed bridge across the Korabelny Fairway (622 m long, 41 m wide, span layout: 150+320+150 m);
• The Northern approach to the bridge across Korabelny Fairway (1380 m long, 41 m wide, span layout: 102+126+102+7x84+63+11x24 m;
• 2 exit ramps of the traffic interchange at the Ekaterinhofka River (other 2 exit ramps are part of Stage II).
Western High Speed Diameter: Main technical innovations
Double-deck trusses at the WHSD Southern section
This road section runs on viaducts in an extremely narrow corridor. For this reason, a unique technical solution was implemented: to reduce the width of the road, it was designed to be located in two levels on double-deck horizontally curved trusses. The trusses have spans of 120, 144 and 168 m. It was the first time in Russia that double-deck trusses of such size were erected.
Double-deck truss launching (approach viaduct to the Sea Channel Bridge and the Sea Channel Bridge)
The double-deck truss viaduct and the bridge carry 4 lanes in each direction. The bridge itself is 760 m long and the approach viaduct is 266 m long. The bridge central span is 168 m and the bridge underclearance is 52 m.
The superstructure consists of continuous double-deck steel trusses with parallel chords and crisscross diagonals, and orthotropic plates of the top and bottom decks. The main construction challenge was that the bridge is located on horizontal and vertical curves; therefore the quality and accuracy of steelwork assembly were critical for successful erection. The deck with a total steel weight of over 20 thousand tons was launched to the distance of 800 m, which is a unique achievement in bridge building.
The erection process was arranged as follows. 24m-long segments of about 600 tons each were pre-assembled in a purpose-built shed on the ground. The preassembled segments were then lifted by two 750 t crawler cranes to the service bridge built at 50 m above the ground. On the service bridge, the deck was assembled segment by segment and launched along the axis. For launching, a 102m-long launching nose was used. Considering the complicated curvilinear bridge geometry, the position of the structure was checked at every launching stage and its spatial position during the next stages was analysed. Launching was implemented using specially designed and fabricated equipment. On piers, 12-roller trolleys were installed. The system of jacks ensured equal distribution of vertical force in each roller and enabled horizontal and vertical rotation of the trolleys with account of the truss bottom chord geometry. Besides, special jacks were used to move the trolleys across the piers to the distance of up to 19 m.
Cable-stayed bridge over Korabelny Fairway: inward incline of the pylons
The cable-stayed bridge has a 320m-long central span, the underbridge clearance is 35 m. The architectural concept with inwardly inclined pylons resembles one of the most known symbols of St. Petersburg – drawbridges. The pylons are inclined inwards at an angle of 12o, which is a unique solution in the bridge engineering practice – usually pylons of cable-stayed bridges do not have any inclination or are inclined outwards. The pylons are 125 m high.
When casting the pylons, a constant geodetic control was carried out to check the position of the formwork for each concreted 3.185m-high panel. As each pylon column is inclined inwards and also towards the bridge centre line, their possible displacement under self weight could hinder the installation of the cross-beam. To prevent this, the pylon columns had some camber.
The designers checked the position of the pylons after each stage of casting and adjusted the formwork for each next panel to be concreted. The implemented monitoring system enabled a continuous control over the bridge erection, providing on-line data that was used for analyses.
Bridge over Petrovsky Fairway: Fan arrangement of cable stays
The bridge has a 240 m-long central span and the underclearance of 25 m.
The bridge has two 123.9 m-high one-column pylons located on the bridge central line within the median strip. The pylons are additionally strengthened crosswise by stays fixed to anchor supports having independent foundations. The deck is supported by three planes of cables. The central plane has fan arrangement of cables. Side planes have reverse arrangement of cables which together with lateral stays form intricate web-pattern making the bridge another aesthetic landmark of the road.
The pylons were cast using sliding formwork.
Aesthetic design of the entire road
The designers paid much attention to the project aesthetics. The entire 46.6km-long highway have a single architectural appearance that on one hand reflects modern bridge engineering practices and on the other hand, a delicate and careful attitude to the city skyline and the natural landscape. The challenge was to develop an architectural concept giving the impression of recognisable and dynamic structure which would differ fr om the other city roads. The visual image of a state-of-the-art 21 century highway can be perceived along the entire highway with its numerous engineering structures, which total length being more than 21 km. The common architectural elements, shapes and the style of all engineering structures show that they all are part of a single whole – the Western High Speed Diameter.
Arc-shaped lighting poles are combined with curved noise screen. Curvilineal cross-section shapes highlight the modern character of the road and make it more dynamic. In addition to the above-mentioned architectural, engineering and technical aspects, the designers took into consideration the climatic conditions (strong winds, icing, etc.), the specifics of urban and natural landscapes as well as the scale of the project and the construction time-framework.
Road automated deicing system
At several road sections that require additional safety measures, in particular the sections with close-to-lim it parameters of the road plan and profile, or the sections at risk of ice cover formation, etc., the automated deicing system was installed. In adverse weather conditions, based on the data received from in-built sensors, deicing agents are automatically sprinkled over the road surface to prevent ice formation.
Two-level toll plaza at the southern WHSD section
Due to extremely limited space, at the exit to Avtomobilnaya Street the toll plaza was built in two levels with the upper level located on the viaduct.
Flow+ tolling system
The Flow+ toll collection system implemented on the WHSD allows calculating automatically the driving distance of a vehicle equipped with a transponder and charging the fee accordingly so that road users pay not for fare zones but only for the route they actually pass. The system does not require constructing toll plazas at each entrance to or exit from the highway. Transponders mounted on vehicles are read by signal receivers installed at entrance and exit ramps.
The Western High Speed Diameter Project Wins NOPRIZ 2017 Competition
On November, 29, the winners of the Best Project 2017 Competition organized by National Association of Researchers and Designers (NOPRIZ) received their awards in Moscow.
Stroyproekt Wins the Competition “Leader of Innovations in the Russian Road Sector 2017”
Institute Stroyproekt was announced the winner of the 6th All-Russia Competition “Leader of Innovations in the Russian Road Sector 2017” in nomination “Innovations in Design”.
Stroyproekt will design new interchanges on WHSD
Institute Stroyproekt has concluded a design contract for three traffic interchanges on the Western High Speed Diameter (WHSD) in St. Petersburg.
Photo report from the WHSD Central Section construction site
Maksim Sokolov, the Minister of Transport of the Russian Federation, takes part in closure of the bridge over the Korabelny Fairway
The closure of the bridge over the Korabelny Fairway at the Central section of Western High Speed Diameter (WHSD) took place in St. Petersburg on 9 August.